Tuesday, November 23, 2021

g-f(2)676 THE BIG PICTURE OF THE DIGITAL AGE (11/23/2021), geniouxfacts, A fundamental golden knowledge juice on digital transformation (DT)




ULTRA-condensed knowledge


"g-f" fishing of golden knowledge (GK) of the fabulous treasure of the digital ageDigital Transformation, Innovation (11/23/2021)  g-f(2)426 


OPPORTUNITY, HBR 

EXCEPTIONAL “Full Pack Golden Knowledge Container”

Enjoy this g-f(2)676 golden knowledge juice on digital transformation that analyzes and learns how the giant Apple innovates.


      1. Golden Knowledge Container 1:  g-f(1)6 Apple success: Functional organizational design and its associated leadership model, October 30, 2020, blog.geniouxfacts.com.
        • Apple is well known for its innovations in hardware, software, and services. Thanks to them, it grew from some 8,000 employees and $7 billion in revenue in 1997, the year Steve Jobs returned, to 137,000 employees and $260 billion in revenue in 2019. 
      2. Golden Knowledge Container 2: g-f(1)23 For its innovations, Apple relies on a structure that centers on functional expertise, November 13, 2020, blog.geniouxfacts.com.
        • Perhaps no product feature better reflects Apple’s commitment to continuous innovation than the iPhone camera. The iPhone camera technology has contributed to the photography industry with a stream of innovations. To create such innovations, Apple relies on a structure that centers on functional expertise. Its fundamental belief is that those with the most expertise and experience in a domain should have decision rights for that domain. Relying on technical experts rather than general managers increases the odds that those bets will pay off.
      3. Golden Knowledge Containers 3, 4 & 5 - Three Great Videos from the Harvard Business Review YouTube Channel 


          Genioux knowledge fact condensed as an image



          How Apple Is Organized for Innovation: The Functional Organization





          How Apple Is Organized for Innovation: The Leadership Model





          How Apple Is Organized for Innovation: Leadership at Scale







          Extra-condensed knowledge


          Lessons learned, HBR 


          • Apple’s functional organization is rare, if not unique, among very large companies. It flies in the face of prevailing management theory that companies should be reorganized into divisions and business units as they become large. But something vital gets lost in a shift to business units: the alignment of decision rights with expertise.
          • The adoption of a functional structure may have been unsurprising for a company of Apple’s size at the time. What is surprising—in fact, remarkable—is that Apple retains it today, even though the company is nearly 40 times as large in terms of revenue and far more complex than it was in 1998. Senior vice presidents are in charge of functions, not products. As was the case with Jobs before him, CEO Tim Cook occupies the only position on the organizational chart where the design, engineering, operations, marketing, and retail of any of Apple’s main products meet. In effect, besides the CEO, the company operates with no conventional general managers: people who control an entire process from product development through sales and are judged according to a P&L statement. 


                  Condensed knowledge



                  Lessons learned, HBR 


                  • Apple’s main purpose is to create products that enrich people’s daily lives. That involves not only developing entirely new product categories such as the iPhone and the Apple Watch, but also continually innovating within those categories. 
                  • To create such innovations, Apple relies on a structure that centers on functional expertise. Its fundamental belief is that those with the most expertise and experience in a domain should have decision rights for that domain. This is based on two views: First, Apple competes in markets where the rates of technological change and disruption are high, so it must rely on the judgment and intuition of people with deep knowledge of the technologies responsible for disruption. Long before it can get market feedback and solid market forecasts, the company must make bets about which technologies and designs are likely to succeed in smartphones, computers, and so on. Relying on technical experts rather than general managers increases the odds that those bets will pay off.
                  • Second, Apple’s commitment to offer the best possible products would be undercut if short-term profit and cost targets were the overriding criteria for judging investments and leaders. Significantly, the bonuses of senior R&D executives are based on companywide performance numbers rather than the costs of or revenue from particular products. Thus product decisions are somewhat insulated from short-term financial pressures. The finance team is not involved in the product road map meetings of engineering teams, and engineering teams are not involved in pricing decisions.


                  Some relevant characteristics of this "genioux fact"

                  • Category 2: The Big Picture of the Digital Age
                  • [genioux fact deduced or extracted from HBR]
                  • This is a “genioux fact fast solution.”
                  • Tag Opportunities those travelling at high speed on GKPath
                  • Type of essential knowledge of this “genioux fact”: Essential Analyzed Knowledge (EAK).
                  • Type of validity of the "genioux fact". 

                    • Inherited from sources + Supported by the knowledge of one or more experts.


                  References


                  “genioux facts”: The online programme on MASTERING “THE BIG PICTURE OF THE DIGITAL AGE”, g-f(2)676, Fernando Machuca, November 23, 2021, blog.geniouxfacts.comgeniouxfacts.comGenioux.com Corporation.


                  ABOUT THE AUTHORS


                  PhD with awarded honors in computer science in France

                  Fernando is the director of "genioux facts". He is the entrepreneur, researcher and professor who has a disruptive proposal in The Digital Age to improve the world and reduce poverty + ignorance + violence. A critical piece of the solution puzzle is "genioux facts"The Innovation Value of "genioux facts" is exceptional for individuals, companies and any kind of organization.




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