Monday, September 6, 2021

g-f(2)475 THE BIG PICTURE OF THE DIGITAL AGE (9/6/2021), HBR, The Digital Economy Runs on Open Source. Here’s How to Protect It.


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"g-f" fishing of golden knowledge (GK) of the fabulous treasure of the digital age, Open Source (9/6/2021)  g-f(2)426 

Lessons learned, The Digital Economy Runs on Open Source, HBR
  • Though most people don’t realize it, much of the technology we rely on every day runs on free and open source software (FOSS).
  • Phones, cars, planes, and even many cutting-edge artificial intelligence programs use open-source software such as the Linux kernel operating system, the Apache and Nginx web servers, which run over 60% of the world’s websites, and Kubernetes, which powers cloud computing.
  • The corporate world’s entry into free and open source online communities has caused some serious concerns and friction.
                Alert, The sustainability, stability, and security of FOSS, HBR
                • The sustainability, stability, and security of these software packages is a major concern to every company that uses them (which is essentially every company). But unlike traditional closed-source software, which companies build internally and sell, FOSS is developed by an unsung army of typically unpaid developers, and is typically given away for free.
                                          Lessons learned, As companies have made FOSS part of their business model, they have also acquired important FOSS producers, HBR
                                          • Two years ago, IBM purchased Red Hat, one of the most successful companies built around FOSS for $34 billion. A year before that, other tech giants paid billions to acquire a stake in FOSS, most notably Microsoft (bought GitHub for $7.5 billion) and Salesforce.com (bought MuleSoft for $6.5 billion).
                                          • The biggest question regarding the increasing involvement of corporations with FOSS is whether it will negatively impact the future health and well-being of the FOSS ecosystem.
                                          Alert, How Companies Can Help, HBR
                                          • Free and open source software is a vital cog in the economy, much like interstate highways, the power grid, or the communications network.
                                          • With the number of stakeholders involved in the FOSS ecosystem, it is difficult for any single actor to solve all of the issues.


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                                            Alert, The corporate world’s entry into free and open source online communities has caused some serious concerns and friction, HBR
                                            • Acquisitions of FOSS producers could lead to a crowding-out of volunteer contributors to an extent that threatens the future health of the FOSS ecosystem. Further, the world’s largest cloud providers have built multi-billion dollar businesses on top of FOSS components, leading FOSS contributors to wonder why they are spending their free time making the rich richer. Such actions can deter volunteers from contributing, threatening the underlying ethos of the FOSS community.


                                            Some relevant characteristics of this "genioux fact"

                                            • Category 2: The Big Picture of the Digital Age
                                            • [genioux fact deduced or extracted from HBR]
                                            • This is a “genioux fact fast solution.”
                                            • Tag Opportunities those travelling at high speed on GKPath
                                            • Type of essential knowledge of this “genioux fact”: Essential Analyzed Knowledge (EAK).
                                            • Type of validity of the "genioux fact". 

                                              • Inherited from sources + Supported by the knowledge of one or more experts.


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                                            ABOUT THE AUTHORS


                                            Hila Lifshitz-Assaf


                                            Hila Lifshitz-Assaf is an Associate Professor of Technology, Operations and Statistics at NYU Stern.


                                            Hila Lifshitz-Assaf is an Associate Professor of Information, Operations and Management Sciences atNew York University Stern School of Business. She is also a faculty associate at Harvard University, at the Lab for innovation Science. 

                                            Professor Lifshitz-Assaf’s research focuses on developing an in-depth empirical and theoretical understanding of the micro-foundations of scientific and technological innovation and knowledge creation processes in the digital age. She explores how the ability to innovate is being transformed, as well as the challenges and opportunities the transformation means for R&D organizations, professionals and their work. She conducted an in-depth 3-year longitudinal field study of NASA’s experimentation with open innovation online platforms and communities, resulting in a scientific breakthrough. This study received the best dissertation Grigor McClelland Award at the European Group for Organizational Studies (EGOS) 2015, Best Administrative Science Quarterly (ASQ) paper based on dissertation (2018) and Best published paper elected by organizational communication and information systems division of Academy of Management (2018).


                                            Frank Nagle


                                            Frank Nagle is an assistant professor at Harvard Business School where he studies and teaches topics at the intersection of technology and strategy. Previously, he worked in the cybersecurity field for nearly a decade.


                                            Frank Nagle is an assistant professor in the Strategy Unit at Harvard Business School. Professor Nagle studies how competitors can collaborate on the creation of core technologies, while still competing on the products and services built on top of them. His research falls into the broader categories of the future of work, the economics of IT, and digital transformation and considers how technology is weakening firm boundaries. His work frequently explores the domains of crowdsourcing, free digital goods, cybersecurity, and generating strategic predictions from unstructured big data. His work utilizes large datasets derived from online social networks, open source software repositories, financial market information, and surveys of enterprise IT usage. Professor Nagle’s work has been published or is forthcoming in the academic journals Management Science, Organization Science, Strategic Management Journal, Research Policy, and Strategic Management Review as well as in the practitioner-oriented publications Harvard Business Review, MIT Sloan Management Review, and Brookings Institution TechStream. He has won awards and grants from AOM, NBER, SMS, INFORMS, EURAM, the Sloan Foundation, and the Linux Foundation. He is the co-director of the HBS/Linux Foundation Core Infrastructure Initiative. At HBS, he is a faculty affiliate of the Digital Initiative, the Managing the Future of Work Project, and the Laboratory for Innovation Science at Harvard (LISH).




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