Thursday, January 13, 2022

g-f(2)812 The New World (1/13/2022), Brookings, How countries are leveraging computing power to achieve their national artificial intelligence strategies


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"g-f" fishing of golden knowledge (GK) of the fabulous treasure of the digital ageThe New World, Computing power for AI (12/13/2021)  g-f(2)426 


Lessons learned, Brookings

EXCEPTIONAL “Full Pack Golden Knowledge Container”


Much of the development of AI is predicated on two pillars: technologies and human capital availability. 




                Genioux knowledge fact condensed as an image




                ABOUT THE AUTHORS


                Samar Fatima


                Ph.D. Student, QUT Business School - Queensland University of Technology


                Gregory S. Dawson


                Clinical Professor, the W. P. Carey School of Business - Arizona State University


                Kevin C. Desouza


                Nonresident Senior Fellow - Governance Studies, Center for Technology Innovation

                Kevin C. Desouza is a professor of Business, Technology and Strategy in the School of Management at the QUT Business School. He is a Nonresident Senior Fellow in the Governance Studies Program at the Brookings Institution and is a Distinguished Research Fellow at the China Institute for Urban Governance at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. He has held tenured faculty appointments at the University of Washington, Virginia Tech, and Arizona State University. In addition, he has held visiting appointments at the London School of Economics and Political Science, Università Bocconi, University of the Witwatersrand, and the University of Ljubljana. Desouza has authored, co-authored, and/or edited nine books. He has published more than 130 articles in journals across a range of disciplines including information systems, information science, public administration, political science, technology management, and urban affairs. A number of outlets have featured his work including Sloan Management Review, Stanford Social Innovation Research, Harvard Business Review, Forbes, Businessweek, Wired, Governing, Slate.com, Wall Street Journal, USA Today, NPR, PBS, and Computerworld. Desouza has advised, briefed, and/or consulted for major international corporations, non-governmental organizations, and public agencies on strategic management issues ranging from management of information systems, to knowledge management, innovation programs, crisis management, and leadership development. Desouza has received over $1.8 million in research funding from both private and government organizations. For more information, please visit: kevindesouza.net.


                James S. Denford


                Professor, Management Department - Royal Military College of Canada




                Extra-condensed knowledge



                Lessons learned, Brookings

                Golden Knowledge (GK) Juice


                • Using finely tuned hardware, a specialized network, and large data storage, supercomputers have long been used for computationally intense projects that require large amounts of data processing. With the rise of artificial intelligence and machine learning, there is an increasing demand for these powerful computers and, as a result, processing power is rapidly increasing. As such, the growth of AI is inextricably linked to the growth in processing power of these high-performing devices.
                • DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FACTORS
                  • In order to analyze each country’s technology preparedness, we assembled a country-level dataset containing: the number and size of supercomputers in each country, the amount of public and private spending on AI initiatives in each country, the number of AI startups in each country, and the number of AI patents and conference papers each country’s scholars produced. This resulted in ten distinct data elements.
                  • As with our previous analyses, we conducted a factor analysis to determine if any of the data elements were closely related. Closely related items can be mathematically combined into a composite factor, which aids in interpretation. 


                Condensed knowledge




                Lessons learned, Brookings

                Golden Knowledge (GK) Juice


                • U.S. and China
                  • The race for technology dominance is clearly a two-horse race between the U.S. (94th percentile for technology and research and 96th percentage for investment) and China (94th percentile for technology and research and 91st percentage for investments). While the U.S. holds a very slight lead overall, both countries are in the top three positions for every single one of our data elements. This is not surprising, as the size of the U.S. and Chinese economies (largest and second-largest respectively at $20 trillion and $15 trillion respectively) dwarf Japan, which is the third-largest economy ($4.9 trillion). As a result, we see no technology-centric hindrances for either country to continue to excel.
                • United Kingdom, France, Japan, and Germany
                  • The United Kingdom (75th percentile in technology and research and 88th percentile in investments), France (75th percentile in technology and research and 81st percentile in investments), Japan (87th percentile in technology and research and 75th percentile in investments), and Germany (83rd percentile in technology and research and 68th percentile in investments) form a strong chase pack to the two leaders. Of the four countries, we view the United Kingdom as being in the strongest position to challenge the U.S. and China and this is based on their stronger investments in technology. We feel that these investments will allow them to close the gap more quickly than the other countries are capable of. However, we cannot ignore the fact that Japan’s economy is the largest of the four and this suggests that, if they decide to do so, they can quickly accelerate their efforts.
                • TALE OF THE ECONOMIES
                  • Almost without exception, there is a strong relationship between the country’s economic size and its position in our quadrants. The U.S. is certainly leveraging its status as the world’s largest economy and is making dramatically larger technology investments than almost any other country; China is a close second. 
                  • The uncomfortable reality for the U.S. is that its economic strength is very helpful to make the necessary technology infrastructure investments which are necessary but not sufficient to be successful in the pursuit of AI but this economic strength has little or no bearing on the other necessary element – the ability to attract the necessary people to develop and implement its AI strategy. By contrast, China also has the economic strength for the necessary technology infrastructure investments but also has a sizeable population to provide the people power which is also necessary. In other words, China has both conditions necessary for AI success while the U.S. only has one of them. As such, China is currently in far better shape than the U.S. to achieve its AI goals and, without changes on the people front, the U.S. will fall increasingly far behind.


                Some relevant characteristics of this "genioux fact"

                • Category 2: The Big Picture of the Digital Age
                • [genioux fact deduced or extracted from Brookings]
                • This is a “genioux fact fast solution.”
                • Tag Opportunities those travelling at high speed on GKPath
                • Type of essential knowledge of this “genioux fact”: Essential Analyzed Knowledge (EAK).
                • Type of validity of the "genioux fact". 

                  • Inherited from sources + Supported by the knowledge of one or more experts.


                References


                “genioux facts”: The online programme on MASTERING “THE BIG PICTURE OF THE DIGITAL AGE”, g-f(2)812, Fernando Machuca, January 13, 2022, blog.geniouxfacts.comgeniouxfacts.comGenioux.com Corporation.


                ABOUT THE AUTHORS


                PhD with awarded honors in computer science in France

                Fernando is the director of "genioux facts". He is the entrepreneur, researcher and professor who has a disruptive proposal in The Digital Age to improve the world and reduce poverty + ignorance + violence. A critical piece of the solution puzzle is "genioux facts"The Innovation Value of "genioux facts" is exceptional for individuals, companies and any kind of organization.




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