Tuesday, November 17, 2020

g-f(4)2 Where we are with vaccines to face the DISRUPTION of the Coronavirus

VIRAL KNOWLEDGE: The “genioux facts” knowledge news 



Extra-condensed knowledge

More than 150 coronavirus vaccines are in development across the world—and hopes are high to bring one to market in record time to ease the global crisis. It’s too soon to say which candidates will ultimately be successful. It can typically take 10 to 15 years to bring a vaccine to market; the fastest-ever—the vaccine for mumps—required four years in the 1960s. 

  • Moderna Therapeutics. This vaccine candidate relies on injecting snippets of a virus’s genetic material, in this case messenger RNA (mRNA), into human cells. 
  • Any successful vaccine based on this technology would be the first mRNA vaccine approved for human use. This vaccine requires two doses, four weeks apart.
  • Moderna expects to have 20 million doses ready to ship in the U.S. by the end of the year and says it remains on track to deliver at least 500 million doses per year beginning in 2021.
  • Pfizer. This vaccine candidate also relies on injecting snippets of mRNA into human cells to trigger an immune response. This vaccine requires two doses taken 21 days apart.


Genioux knowledge fact condensed as an image. 


Condensed knowledge

  • More than 150 coronavirus vaccines are in development across the world—and hopes are high to bring one to market in record time to ease the global crisis. 
  • Several efforts are underway to help make that possible, including the U.S. government’s Operation Warp Speed initiative, which has pledged $10 billion and aims to develop and deliver 300 million doses of a safe, effective coronavirus vaccine by January 2021. 
  • The World Health Organization is also coordinating global efforts to develop a vaccine, with an eye toward delivering two billion doses by the end of 2021.
  • Vaccines go through a three-stage clinical trial process before they are sent to regulatory agencies for approval—which can be a lengthy process itself.
  • Given the urgent need, some vaccine developers are compressing the clinical process for SARS-CoV-2 by running trial phases simultaneously. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, has stated that independent Data and Safety Monitoring Boards can end trials early if their interim results are overwhelmingly positive or negative.
  • Moderna Therapeutics. This vaccine candidate relies on injecting snippets of a virus’s genetic material, in this case messenger RNA (mRNA), into human cells. It spurs the production of viral proteins that mimic the coronavirus, training the immune system to recognize its presence. Any successful vaccine based on this technology would be the first mRNA vaccine approved for human use. This vaccine requires two doses, four weeks apart.
    • Status: On November 16, Moderna announced that an interim analysis of its phase three study shows the vaccine is 94.5 percent effective in preventing COVID-19—including severe cases of the disease—without any significant safety concerns. Moderna intends to apply for an emergency use authorization with the FDA in the coming weeks
    • Moderna started the third phase of its clinical trials in July. Phase three is testing the vaccine in 30,000 U.S. participants; Moderna expects to have 20 million doses ready to ship in the U.S. by the end of the year and says it remains on track to deliver at least 500 million doses per year beginning in 2021, thanks in part to the deal it has struck with Swiss manufacturer Lonza that will allow it to manufacture up to one billion doses a year.
  • Pfizer. This vaccine candidate also relies on injecting snippets of mRNA into human cells to trigger an immune response. This vaccine requires two doses taken 21 days apart. 
    • Status: On November 9, Pfizer and BioNTech announced that an interim analysis of the phase three study shows the vaccine is more than 90 percent effective in preventing COVID-19 with no serious safety concerns—but as yet they have provided no data to back the claim. 
    • The project is aiming to apply for emergency authorization from the FDA after the third week in November, even though the drug regulator has recently indicated it is moving away from the prospect. 
    • Pfizer has signed a nearly $2 billion contract with the U.S. government to provide 100 million doses by December 2020—an agreement that goes into effect when and if the drug is approved and delivered—and hopes to supply 1.3 billion doses by the end of 2021.


Category 4: Coronavirus and other viruses

[genioux fact extracted from National Geographic]



Authors of genioux fact



References

Dozens of COVID-19 vaccines are in development. Here are the ones to follow. AMY MCKEEVER, November 16, 2020, National Geographic. 

AMY MCKEEVER is a senior writer and editor at National Geographic, based in Washington, DC. You can follow her on Instagram.

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